Social Discrimination

Social justice is the view that everyone deserves equal economic political and social rights and opportunities. Social justice as concerned  arose in the  early  19th century during the industrial  revolution and subsequent civil revolution throughout Europe’s egalitarian societies and remedy social exploitation of   human labour. Early social justice advocates focused primarily on capital property and the distribution of wealth. By mid 20th century, social justice had expanded from being primarily concerned with economics. it includes another sphere of social life including the environment  race gender and other  cause and manifesto of  inequality

The measure of social justice has has expanded  from  wealthmeasured and enacted  only by  the nation state  by include a  universal human dimension.

The main principle of  social justice

  • Access to  resource
  • Equity
  • Diversity
  • Human  right
  • Participations


Equity refers to how  individuals are given tools   specific to their needs and  oeconomic status in order to movetowards  similar  outcomes

In contrast with equality where everyone is offered the same tools to move towards same  outcome.

Social justice integerated with adderesing equity issues  might  include advicing policies that provide  support to overcome systematic  barieers


F Participation  refers to how everyone in  society is given a voice and opportunity  to verbalize there openion  and corncerns

They have a role in any decision  making the affects there livehoods and standard of living

Social injustice occurs when  a group of indivisual make decision for a large group while some people are unable to voice there opinions


Appereciating  the value of  cultural difference is specially important

It is important to recognizing that some group face more barriers in society

Discrimination  in employment on the basis of factor such as race gender ethinicity  sex age and other characterstics and constant issue  in society

Human rights

Human  rights  are basic right and freedom  that belong to every person anywhere in the world from birth until death  they are applied regardless of nationality  faith or race

Human right  and social justice are cerntainly irrelated and it is  impossible for one exist without the other

Theory of social justice

The maximum good of greatest number of indivisuals is regarded as basis of justice

.for them utility ought to be the measured  of good  right morality  progress and justice


THE MARXIST  VIEW  Of social   justice  belive that the idea of  justice has devlope through ages  it changes from one change to another change on  the basis  of economic  relations

2    international  convention on the elimination of all forms of  racial  discrimination  50  year ago

On 21dec 1965    the  united nation general assembly adopted resolution 2106 ,which established the international  convention on  the elimination of  all  form of racial  discrimination [ICERD] .it is among one  of  the oldest in  the un  of  human  rights office arsenal  to target opperession  and  discrimination

The  convention essential resolves to  ;to adopt  all  measure  necessary   for   speedily eliminating  racial discrimination in all its form and  manifesto  and to  prevrent  from combat  racist doctorine and practices in order to promote understanding the   between racesto  and order  an international community free from all   racial segeration and  racial discrimination

2015 marks 50  year since the  adoption of the  convention . it was forged during time of great  civil unrest in parts of the world  . the  drafting took place  during civil right act was passed just prior to its adaptation  . apartheid was  at its height in south  africa  were  doing  away with colonialism for  independence

Yet; despite these milestone , racism continue to plague societies . to combat it CERD CONTINOUS  EXAMINE the situation in each country  that has ratified the convention throuht  its committee. In fact the 177, states that  havr rectified the convention must regularly report  to and appear before committee in Geneva  the committee in turn issues concreate recomondation on how various forms of racism that exist in each country can be affectively  eliminated.

The states  parties to this convention ,considering that the charter of  the united nation  dignity and equality inherent in  the all human beings and the member states have pledged  themselves to  take joint  separate action ,in co-operation with the organization for the achievements  of one of the purposes of the united  nation which is to promote and encourage universal respects for observation of human right  and fundamental freedom for all , without distinction as race , sex . language religion

Considering that the universal declaration of human rights to  proclaim  that all human being are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that everyone is entitilted to all dignity and the right and freedom set out therein  without distinction   of any kind  in  particular  as race , colour, or national origin .

Considering that all human being are equal before  the law and entitled to equal protection of law against any discrimination and against incitement to discrimination

Considering  that the united nations declaration  on the elimination of all form of racial  discrimination of 20 nov 1963 [general assembly resolution of 1904 (xv111) solemonly affirms  the necessity of speedily eliminating racial discrimination throught the world in all forms and manifestations and of securing understanding  of and respect   for the dignity of the human being

Legal provision  article 1

1 in this convention  the term’, racial discrimination  wh‘’ shall  mean any distinction  exclusion ,restriction or preference  based on race, colour  descent  or national  or ethinic  origin   which has has purpose or the effect  of nullifying or impairing the recognition enjoyment  or exercise on an equal footing of human right and fundamental  freedom in the political economic social cultural  or any other section  field of  public life

2 this convention   shall  not apply to distinction,exclusions , restriction or preferences  made  by   a  state party to this convention between citizens and non citizens

3nothing in this convention may be interpreted as affecting in any way the legal  provisions  of the states  parties concerning nationality  citizenship or neutralization  provided that such provisions do not discriminate against anyn particular  nationality

Special measures taken for the  sole purpose of securing adequate advancement of certain  racial or ethinic groups or indivisual  requiring such protection as may be necessary in order  to ensure such groups or individuals equal enjoyment on exercise of human rights and fundamental  freedom shall  not be deemed racial discrimination  provide , however  that such measures do not as  consequence , lead to the maintenance of separate rights for different racial  groups and they shall not be continued after the objective for which theywere  taken have been achieved

Article 2

1 state parties condemn racial  discrimination and undertake  to pursue by all  appropriate means  and without  delay  a policy of elimimnating  racial discrimination in all its form and promoting understanding among all races  , and, to the end ,  each  state party undertakes  to engage  in no act or practice  of racial discrimination against person , group of prsons or institution and to ensure that all public authorities and public , institution national  and local  shall act in conformity with this obligation

B . Each state party take effective measures to review governmental , national  and local policies  and to end amend ,  rescind  or nullify any  laws regulations which have the effect of creating  or perpetuation  racial discrimination  wherever it exist

Article 3 states condemn all   racial segeration  and apartheid and undertake to prevent prohibit  and eradicate all practices of this  naturein terrortries under judriction .

Refugee law

Respect for the rule of law and human right forms the essence of the protection of refugees returnees and stateless persons . the office of the united  nation high commissioner for refugees    has mandate to provide international protection to refugees  including  promong  the accession to international refugees  instrumental   and other relevant human right instruments .

Statelessness is  a source of human insecurity forced displacement  and serious  conflict  which  may pose  a threat  to national  and regional  stability  legislation on nationality  and administrative  practices  that are in accordance with internationally  recognized  human rights standards  are essential  elements of the rule of law  and key in addressing  root causes of conflict.  Unchr provides  technical advices  and support  to governments   for  the accession to the 1954  convention  on the reduction of statelessness

National Law 

Article 17 of the Indian constitution abolished the  practice of untouchability and made its practice of untouchablity  and made its practice  of untouchablity  and made its  practice and punishable  offence. But what does this particular  term exactly  mean  remained  uncertain  as its  was not  defined in the constitution  article 35 of the constitution  article 35 (a)(2) gave  the power to  make panel law for the offense mentioned under  article 17. Consequenty  the  untouchablity offense  act of 1955 renamed  to the protection of civil liberty act ) was enacted  which provided  penalities  for preventing  a person from entering  a place  of worship  or  from taking  water from a tank  or  well

Linking caste to merit

What we drove the wedge deepest and exacerbated  the misery  of oppressed  communities  was tacit  linkage of caste  with merit  a myth  perpetuated  by previlages  caste  to discredit  the affirmative  action measure   such  as reservation  in educational institutions.  The  mandal  commission  was set up in 1979  by maraji dessai  government  to identify  the socially  or educationally  backward class es of india  question  the concept of reservation to  redress  caste discrimination  in india  27 percent  reservation in jobs in the central governmental as well as public sector  undertaking  (psu). The report’s  recommendation  were  ignored  for over a decade and its  implementation  was considerd  only in 1990  by the vp singh   government  causing spreading  protest  across the country   where nearly 200 students  upper caste  attempted  sucide  by self  immolation . 68  of them succumbed of their injuries

Dalit live matter

There are parallels  in the resurgence  of dalit Bahujan  movement in  India  and black live matters  movement  that was born in 2013 after acquittalof GEORGE ZIMMERIAN in the fatal  shooting of trayvoun martin  , a black  teenager in  in flourida.

 Judicial  judgement  discrimination based  on the caste system

D.S. Nakra and others vs union of India  on 17 December 1982

This case is about the pensioners who were excluded from  benefits  of  pension  because  of their retirement date.

Facts  petitioner 1 and petitioner 2 both  had retired   in the year 1972  from ceteral service  and armed forces  service  , and petitioner  no.3  a registered society advocating the cause of of pensioners all  over the country , challenged  the validity of the above  two memoranda  because the benefit  of the new  statue was available  to  the only one  who retired   after     the  mention above date

The counsel for the petitioner advocated that the pensioners are entitled to receive the pension benefit under the statute and the date of the retirement is irrelevant cause for the exclusion of the benefit and retirement and there cannot be a mini-classification within this class. This different treatment based on only specified date of retirement is violative of article 14 of the constitution as the choice of specified date is wholly arbitrary and the classification based on the accidental circumstance of retirement before or after to the specified date is invalid and that the scheme of liberalisation in computation of pension must be uniformly enforced with regard to all pensioners.

While the counsel for the respondent advocated that the classification based on the date of retirement is valid for the purpose of granting pensionary benefits because the specified date is an integral part of the scheme of liberalisation and the Government would never have enforced the scheme devoid of the date. And Doctrine of Severability cannot be imposed here for differentiate the specified date from the scheme because it would impact the class of pensioners covered by the scheme, it will increase the class and when the legislature has expressly defined the class then it would be outside the judicial function if it increase the class. And in almost every case there are some category and class already set up according to the scope of provisions for maintaining the law. This scheme has financial implications so the court cannot make it retroactive. And if more persons are included in the scheme then the share will automatically decrease. And in the last the third petitioner has no locus standi in the case.


  • Is the date of retirement a relevant consideration for eligibility and computation of pension?
  • Would differential treatment to pensioners related to the date of retirement contained the element of discrimination liable to be declared unconstitutional as being violative of Article 14?

Related Provisions

  • Article 14 of the Constitution:

It talks about the equality; that the state shall not deny equality and give equal protection of law to everyone and prohibit the discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

  • Article 32 of the Constitution:

This give the power to enforce Fundamental Rights to the citizens; that they can move to Supreme Court if their Fundamental right is violated. Ans the Supreme Court can issue directions or orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, whichever may be appropriate, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by this Part.

  • Article 38(1) of the Constitution:

State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the peopleby securing and protecting social order in which justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all the institutions of the national life.

  • Article 39 of the Constitution:

“Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State: The State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing

(a)that the citizens, men and women equally, have the right to an adequate means to livelihood;

(b)that the ownership and control of the material resources of the community are so distributed as best to sub serve the common good;

(c)that the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment;

(d)that there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women;

(e)that the health and strength of workers, men and women, and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength;

(f)that children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.”

  • Article 41 of the Constitution:

“Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases The State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, and in other cases of undeserved want.

Practical in ground level

Practical  on  ground  level   reality  is  very  different   from  our constitutional  ,maker .  however  constitution  maker   thought  to  remove  a   social discrimination  but  in  reality   till  now  it   is  not fulfilled  or achieved

Right  now   in  two  moths back  there  was  a student  from  sc category     and teacher   murdered  him  on  the  name cast   just   think  .   we  have  rule of  law   but   teacher    has   not  followed  rule of  law .   in  INDIA   every day thousand   of  accident  took  place   in  the  name  of     cast  system    or  religion.

There were many cases in 1990s in BIHAR where many accident took place one the name of caste system. There was accident in my district where rat eaters  have  went  to  rich   farmer  home    social  violence  cause     many  of  them  rat eaters  have  loss  there  life    many of  of   them setteled  to different places  . although  justice   by    hounarable high court  patna  was   being delivered  some  of  main     most  accusers   left  due   lack  of  evidence  but  many  of rateaters are  still  not  comeback  to  there  home .  it   was  one  of  the  biggest  crime  in   Bihar   where   total failuare   of   being  humanity .  after   this   1989      under vp singh   government act   had been  brought  called  as  scst  act. In  this  act if   anyone  discriminate   to them  or  misbehave   with  them   then  it is  applied  under   48   hour  . accused have to   arrest    however 2019  it  was  being   amended    in   this . with  consent   of   sp  officer  acussed  must  be  arrested.  However  sometime  this  act  may  be misuse  only   .Every  coin  has   two  faces  its  depend   upon  how we  are using .

we  have  right to equality   but   it  is  not possible . so thay   why  we   concept  of  equity  in the constitution   however  the  reservation   was  being  only  in   this    concept.

Human   being  we have  moral  social  value  we   should  disturb .

 Crime related  to  social discrimination

In  today if  we  take   an  example   of  state  like   chhatisgrah  Jharkhand  telngna  Andhra Pradesh  Mahrastra  orrisa  in  this  state   population  of  st  is  larger  compare to other state .   where  st  community  being  mentally  physical emotionally harashed   . in  this    community  people  are not much  educated   they  are  easily   influenced  by the  maoist    to  join  either forcefully  or emotionally .   however  they  all  are  facing  many challenge .  sometime   maoist   kidnapped there  family to  join    in naxal .   sometime  even   people  loss there life in  encounter attack   .  human right  is  always  being   violated  in these states  .  we  are  saying   about  right equality  or  equity   .

In  states like   up bihar Haryana Punjab  madhyapradesh   in  this   most  of the  time  it was found people  of  lower class family . his sister  mothers   were  involve  in   sexual harshment  by forcefull   beacause  of  there poverty .  sometime   upper class  people  did not allow  to  live  in  that  area .  or   they  muredered.  They  forced to  do beggar  system  which violates  there  fundamental   right  to   peope   article 23  and 24.   They  forced  to  in  there field   without  paynment. Still  in   some parts  ofindia   is still being practiced    .


We  have  constitution   where  we get   justice  by  using  rule of law and fundamental  right  . right to equality from article 14 to 18 .  where  discrimination canoot be  done . but still  some  time  it is  being practicsed.   Although  I found while   my doing  research  practical level people donot   know  about law ; they  get victim by upper class  they   can not afford much money to the lawyer so  that’s  why  somewhere   it  is lacking  . although  parliament   have  make  law strictly so  that  people  canot  repeat  again . although  from past  50   social  discrimination is  being  decreased. Political  leaders    are   requested  to  not  use  as there vote  bank to them  .  however  it  need  to  more   on  social  discriminator .  today  in  india  from  last  8  years  people are fighting  in the  name  of religion people are  fighting  .  then  in   case  somewhere social discrimination start .  it  is  not  good  for  democratic  fom of  government.

Written By- Indramani Kumar

Lovely Professional University

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