What is hacking?

Hacking is identifying the weakness of PC, any system, or networks to gain profit. In other words, unauthorized access or control over the computer network security systems with malice intention.

Example: – use of password cracking algorithm to access another’s PC.

In the modern era, PC products become the most useful product to run any type of business.  It is not possible to have isolated system networks because they need to be connected with others for communication regarding business. This step exposes them to the external world and hacking also. Hacking means the use of computers to commit fraudulent crimes such as data theft, fraud, privacy invasion, etc. Cyber-attacks cost many companies millions of dollars every month. That’s why businesses need to protect themselves against such attacks.

Who is a hacker?

A hacker is a person who is skilled in computer programming with the knowledge of computer security. He finds the weakness of the computer program to gain access.

Types of hackers

The hackers are classified according to their actions:-

Ethical Hacker (white hat):

Ethical Hacker gains access to a computer with a view to fixing the identified weakness.

Cracker (Black Hat):

The Cracker gains unauthorized access to the computer for personal gain. The intention of the cracker is to steal personal data, violate privacy rights, etc.

Grey Hat:

A Hacker who is between the Ethical and Cracker is Grey Hat Hacker. He breaks the computer security without authority access with a view to identify the weakness and reveal them to the owner of the security.

Script kiddies:

Non-skilled hackers gain access to the system by using tools of hacking already made.


Hacktivist uses hacking to send political, social or religious messages. He usually did this by hijacking the website and living the message on the homepage of that site.


Phreaker identifies and exploits weaknesses in telephones instead of computers.

Types of Hacking

Nowadays, it becomes very common to see a particular account or site being hacked using unauthorized access and its contents being altered or changed. The websites of political parties are being hacked by opposites or individuals. It also not remains uncommon to see the national sites being hacked. Some of the common methods of website hacking are:


The user uses this site without knowing that this is a fake site. The user put his details like account passwords, credit card details, which the owner of the site seizes and misuse. The banking sites are the main target for this.


The hackers release the virus into the site when they enter the website. The motive to put the virus is to corrupt the data or information of that site.

UI Redress

The hacker creates a fake user interface. When a person clicks on this link, in order to enter into a certain website, he directed to the fake sites.


Cookie theft

Cookies contain confidential information like passwords etc. The Hackers access the website using the codes and steal the cookies.


DNS Spoofing

It uses the cache data of a website. It then directs the data to another malicious website.


Defenses against hacking


Hacking is a strong threat that is affecting the security of the nation and individuals. At the individual level, hacking can cause untold financial losses, and sometimes, it can wipe the whole earned money of an individual. At the company level, it can put the company into the loss which may not be recoverable. It is very important to put the safeguards at the right time to avoid this evil.


12 Ways to Secure Your Computer from Hackers


 Also Read:

What is NRC- National Register of Citizens

How a bill becomes Act?

The preamble to the Constitution of India

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