The Constitution of India is the supreme law in India. It contains the Powers, duties, structure of procedure of government institutions and set out the rights and duties of citizens, Powers and functions of the president of India, How a bill becomes Act, fundamental rights and directive principles of State policy. Our Constitution is the largest written constitution on earth. 7th schedule of Indian constitution divides the powers of the State government and Central government by creating 3 different lists which are Union list, State list, and Concurrent list.
7th schedule of Indian constitution
The 7th Schedule of the constitution of India manages the division of powers between the Union government and State governments. These are the part of 12 Schedules of Indian Constitution. The division of powers among Union and State is informed through three sorts of the lists given in the 7th Schedule:
- Union List – List I
- State List – List II
- Concurrent List – List III
The union list defines the subjects on which Parliament may make laws while the state list defines those under the preview of state governing bodies. The Concurrent list has subjects in which both Parliament and state law-making bodies have jurisdiction. Here are the three lists i.e. union list, state list and concurrent list in detail.
The Union List is a list of 92 numbered things given in 7th Schedule in the Constitution of India on which Parliament has the power to legislate.
Subjects of public importance like protection, international concerns, nuclear energy, banking, post and transmit are included for the Union List. Just the central government can pass laws regarding the matters referenced in the Union List since we need a uniform policy on significant or public issues all through the nation. The Union List has 97 subjects.
Subjects under the Union list are:
- criminal law,
- criminal procedure,
- preventive detention for reasons concerned with the security of the state,
- marriage and divorce,
- transfer of property other than agricultural land,
- actionable wrongs,
- bankruptcy and insolvency, and others.
State List as specified under the Indian Constitution, sets out the lists of issues whereupon the state Legislature can make laws. It contains those significant subjects on which the state government can pass laws. Subjects like police, nearby governments, exchange and trade, farming inside the state are remembered for the State List.
The State List or List-II is a list of 59 items. At first, there were 66 things in the list in 7th Schedule to the Constitution of India.
Subjects under the State list are:
- public order,
- state court fees,
- local government,
- public health and sanitation,
- hospitals and dispensaries,
- pilgrimages within India,
- intoxicating liquors,
- relief of disabled and unemployable,
- animal husbandry,
- water supply, and others.
The Concurrent List contains the subjects which are of normal concern both to the Central and the state governments. Normally both the central and the state governments can outline laws regarding these matters. The Concurrent List is a list of 52 things present in the 7th Schedule to the Constitution of India. It includes the power to be considered by both the association and state government.
Now, the Concurrent List has 47 subjects. The idea of the Concurrent list has been taken from the Constitution of Australia. Both the Central Government and State Government both can make laws regarding the matters that go under the classification of Concurrent List. The issues on which consistency of enactment all through the nation is desirable yet not compulsory are counted in the concurrent list.
Subjects under the Concurrent list are:
- Forests and wildlife
- Traders union
- Progression, and others.
Major differences between the Union List, State List and Concurrent List
The Indian constitution has three lists named as union list, state list and concurrent list. They are not alike. There are many differences between the union, state and concurrent list. Here are they:
(I) The union list has the subjects of public significance like protection, international affairs, nuclear energy, and so on
(ii) Only the central government can pass laws regarding these matters.
(iii) The union list contains 97 subjects.
(i)The state list has the subjects of public health, hospitals, sanitation in toxic liquors, agriculture, water supply, ponds and so on.
(ii)Only the state government can pass laws regarding these matters.
(iii)The state list has 59 subjects.
(I) the concurrent list has the subjects which are of normal concern of both the central and the state governments.
(ii) Both the central and the state governments can outline laws regarding these matters.
(iii) This list contains 47 subjects.